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Misfortune Cookie

Misfortune Cookie is a firmware vulnerability present in Internet routers that enables a hacker/cyber criminal to take over the router. This compromised router is then used to launch attacks on homes and business routers. The vulnerability dubbed as misfortune cookie, allows the hacker to gain administrative privileges and thus monitor all data travelling through the gateway.

The crux of the problem lies in HTTP cookie-management mechanism in the software of the router. According to Check Point, the vulnerability affects over 12 million affected devices in 200 different models.

Virtual Appliance

A virtual appliance is basically a software which is just like any physical computer running on an operating system. The operating system in the virtual machine is installed by installation files via a DVD, CD Rom etc. It runs on a physical machine called the host system. It functions the same way as any physical hardware.

Additionally, it offers benefit of ease of management, portability and security. A server, desktop application, storage, security etc. can be virtualized.

Madware

Madware is a term that is a combination of ‘Mobile’ and ‘Adware’. Madware is relentless and aggressive advertising that affects smart phones and tablets. Many madwares function like spyware by culling information of user and his activities.

Madware banners take up a lot of screen space that makes the user click on it – mostly unintentionally in a bid to escape it.

POODLE Attack

A POODLE attack exploits the encryption aspect of some browsers. Its full form is 'Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption' which explains the vulnerability. This vulnerability is found in browsers that use SSL 3.0 for encryption and authentication. In the present times mostly transport layer security, TLS, is used. It has mostly replaced the old SSL 3.0.

However, many browsers still fall back upon SSL 3.0 when TLS is unavailable and cyber criminals exploit this to launch 'Man-in-the-Middle attack.

Industrial Internet

It is an emerging term coined by General Electric and basically means connectedness between people, data and machines. It is touted as a next big thing that will enable control and access of machines and thus increase efficiency, minimize waste, and enable smarter decisions. In course of its evolution, it is said, will have exceptional standards in analytical intelligence to self-diagnose and self-correct

Industrial the machines connected vary from jet engines to gas turbines to medical scanners. A small glimpse of industrial internet can be found in an aeroplane where automated designs enable it to send data either through ground stations or satellite uplinks in real time.

MAC Address

MAC Address The full form of MAC address is “Media Access Control” and is also known as ‘hardware address’ or ‘physical address’. It should not be confused with Apple Macintosh devices which also go by the name Mac. The MAC address basically identifies a hardware device uniquely on a network and comes inbuilt from the factory.

The address is manufactured into every network card, such as an Ethernet card or Wi-Fi card. MAC addresses are represented as 12-digit hexadecimal numbers (48 bits in length).

Content Farm

A Content Farm, also termed as Content Mill, is a website that publishes huge volumes of content in the form of news/information/advisories etc. The aim of the said website is to rank high in search engine results so that it is able to attract ads and in turn earn big revenue.

Content farms have often been criticized for returning substandard information. Moreover, content farms have been losing out as search engines update their algorithm to deny them the advantage of high search rankings that they don’t really deserve.

Big Data

The Phrase Big Data Basically means huge amount of data that cannot be stored or processed using traditional database software.

Examples of Big Data include Google search data, the database of Facebook users profiles, likes and statuses, Amazon.com’s product list and more. To understand more see NetGenie blog on the Story of big data.



In the past some cybersquatters have made huge profits by selling high-interest domain names. As of today countering the cybersquatters is easier and much less expensive. The Anti cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA) gives owners of trademarked or registered names legal rights to a related domain name.

Cyber squatter

The Phrase Big Data Basically means huge amount of data that cannot be stored or processed using traditional database software.

Examples of Big Data include Google search data, the database of Facebook users profiles, likes and statuses, Amazon.com’s product list and more. To understand more see NetGenie blog on the Story of big data.

Expireware

Expireware is any software or program that expires automatically after certain period. The self demolish is inbuilt and is based on parameters such as specific date, number of days used, or the total number of usages.

There has been growing opinion of applying the principles of expiry ware into browsers for fighting malwares that target browsers. The argument behind this is that users are lax on updating browsers so an a built-in expiry date would ensure updates by default.

Nomophobia

Nomophobia refers to pangs of anxiety and restlessness one feels in case of failure to receive a mobile signal, the battery running out or simply the act of forgetting to carry along his or her mobile.

A study by the UK Post office revealed that nearly 53% of mobile phone users became anxious on losing contact with their mobile phone for number of reason and felt disconnected. It also found that 58% of men and 47% of women suffer from the phobia.

Extranet

The availability of Intranet partially to users who are not present on the internal networks of a company is termed as Extranet. This is a cost effective way for facilitating business communication and other functionalities such as e commerce. Users with access to Extranet are given login and password credentials by the admin for secure and limited or need based access of the extranet.

For example many shipping companies or online retailers allow customers to place orders, track shipments, and define delivery time and other tasks by accessing their networks through Extranet.

Gold Code

In IT terminology Gold Code is a name given to a software that is finalized for release/sale to the public. A software undergoes several phases of development before achieving the status of gold code. First, the functions are developed and tested. Then, a graphical user interface is added to use the software through the use of buttons, task bars and keyboard shortcuts. At the end tests are performed to ascertain that there are no hidden bugs.

The code prior to gold code is called a beta version.

Parallel Computing

Parallel computing is term that describes large number of calculations carried out simultaneously on hardware that run in parallel. Parallel computation makes calculations and processes much faster than serial computations. Originally parallel computing was utilized by supercomputers and special computation machines.

However, as the cost of making powerful CPUs has increased, businesses increase computing power by constructing multi-core units that run many of their instruction sets in parallel.

Black Friday

Black Friday is the Friday immediately after Thanksgiving when consumers flock at stores for Christmas sale. On this day goods are offered at incredibly low prices for a few hours motivating customers to pour out shopping on site as well as online.

Black Friday is about driving better and better consumer deals and it is not uncommon to see strange sales like retail game consoles even if the stock is limited.

Open Source

The term open source is basically used in the context of computer software development in which the codes are publicly available for free. This lets, users modify and improve the code. Many people prefer open source software as it enables them to examine the code to make sure it's not doing anything it is not supposed to do. This is especially preferred in today’s time when many software programmes stealthily use spying features.

Some well known examples of open source software are Linux, Mozilla Firefox and VLC media player

Offline Browsing

Offline browsing enables a user to access the web browser’s cache - previously visited pages stored on the local hard drive - to browse the pages there as if connected to the Internet. Offline browsing finds most use with static pages.

Today’s dynamic Web 2 pages modular, however, do not appear or translate exactly like their online avatar.

Shareware

Shareware is a word formed by combining the words ‘share’ and ‘software’. A shareware is basically used as a trial version of a software product in which a user cannot access all its functionalities. After the trial version of the software is over, the user is expected to purchase it to be able to continue using it, with all its functionality enabled.

Adobe Acrobat Professional and Winzip are examples of some of the well known sharewares that users recognize and make extensive use through download from the Internet.

Touch Screen

The word Touch Screen has gained currency with the arrival of smartphones and essentially it is a technology that makes display screen sensitive to the touch of a finger or stylus. Basically there are two technology approaches to touch Screen ─ Resistive and Capacitive.

Capacitive Touch Screens detect the electrical properties of the human body and are very sensitive in detecting the lightest of touch. Apple iPhones, Samsungy Galaxy phones etc. use capcitive touch screen. Resistive Touch Screen are based on multiple layers separated by thin spaces and when pressure is applied the layers touch completing the electrical circuit. The HTC Touch Diamond, Nokia Asha 305, Samsung SGH-i900 etc use Resistive touch screen

QR Codes

QR Codes or “Quick Response code,” are square barcodes which are machine-readable labels. It can be captured through a Smartphone camera and scanned using an app to reveal marketing information such as website url, date of manufacture, product ingredients etc.

QR codes today are found everywhere on advertisement, products, business windows and more. The codes link different element of marketing together. For example a business can link both their FB page & Blog account through a QR code.

Google glass

Google Glass is a basically a computing device that can be worn over the eyes just as any other spectacle. However, the similarity ends there as it will be no ordinary spectacle. It will be interactive like smartphones and will be equipped with blue tooth, Wi-Fi connectivity and voice command support. Google Glass will be powered by the Android OS and will be compatible with apple devices as well.

Google Glass, is aiming to be market ready for purchase in 2013, and will cost less than $1500.

Easter eggs

An Easter Egg in IT means a harmless funny message or joke intentionally designed and hidden into a computer program or a Web page. This was a common practice by developers. However, because of growing Cyber threats companies prohibit the use of software containing Easter eggs for security reasons.

Try this yourself: In Microsoft word or notepad type in Q33N and give it a font Wingdings and size 72. Now press enter and see the effect for yourself. Incidentally Q33N is a flight number of one of the planes that hit one of the twin WTC towers in U.S on 9/11. The image that pops up is a hair raising one.

Also, type in "=rand()" without the quotes and press enter. Enjoy.

Sleep Mode

Sleep mode in PCs and mobile devices essentially serve to save power by just leaving the core system functional. For example when windows go on sleep mode, it switches off the monitors, spins down the hard disks, and changes the CPU to a low-power condition.

The RAM remains active so the OS keeps running and as soon the user taps the keyboard the monitor comes back live right on. Sleep mode helps bring down power use and prolongs battery life.

Smishing

Smishing is a combination of the words 'SMS' and 'Phishing'. Phishing involves fraudulent messages sent over emails while in Smishing it is sent over SMS. The phenomenon of Smishing is increasing with every passing day since the advent of smartphones.

Smishing, just as Phishing, aims to steal people's personal information. For example a common smishing text is “Contact this e-mail address to avoid being fined.” Sometimes it masquerades as incentive message ─ "You have won a free gift card, visit this link to claim prize." The link is mostly a malicious one that directs to a fraudulent website that harnesses your name, address, phone number, and email address and even bank account information or social security number.

DDoS Attacks

Distributed Denial of Service is a cyber attack in which criminals use millions of computers to send false traffic aimed at a particular server and over flood the target URL. Imagine a crowd of thousands knocking at your door all at once!!

A DDoS attack is carried out by using thousands of zombie PCs collectively called “botnet”. A Botnet is a group of PCs previously infected with malicious software that helps attackers control the botnet remotely. Cybercriminals use DDoS attacks to extort money from companies whose websites must always be up and running for the customers in order to do business. There also are cases of legitimate businesses having paid cybercriminals to take down competitor websites through DDOS attack. In fact DDoS attacks have proven to be very profitable part of cyber crime activities!!

Metadata

Metadata is a whole range of additional information about the original data. For example digital cameras contain a wide range of metadata with each photograph they take such as the date when it was taken, the settings of the camera, geographical location and the file size.

Thus the photograph is the primary data while the metadata is the information that comes with the photograph. Other common examples of metadata include music tags embedded in music files, author and company information in word processor documents, and content meta tags embedded in web pages.

4G

The word 4G is a very common term nowadays but one may wonder what exactly it is. Basically 4G is the fourth generation of cell phones with not one technology but a group of technologies that must enable a data transfer rate of at least 100 Mbps and and top out at 1 Gbps.

Most consumers buying smart phones check out for 4G plans. Sprint was the first company to offer 4G services, followed by Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile.

Cache

Cache is basically a section of memory or the Hard Drive where data can be stored for quick or repeated access. However it is mainly used in the context of "browser cache".

For example a cache stores copies of recently web pages that you have accessed on the Internet. When you want to access the page again, it provides you the page from your own hard drive within seconds instead of the usual procedure of going to the original page which may be hosted on server located in a far off country. One should empty the browser cache at regular intervals.

Jail breaking

Changing the settings inside a device that the manufacturer did not permit is called Jail breaking.

People jailbreak mobile phones or devices, mostly to enable download of programs that are otherwise unavailable.

It not illegal to jailbreak a device but it usually voids warranty. It also weakens the security and makes it easier for hackers to break into the device.

Captcha

A captcha is program used to verify that a human, rather than a computer, is entering data.

Captchas ask the user to enter text from a distorted image. The text in the image may be contorted, have lines through it, or may be irregular, making it nearly impossible for an automated robot to recognize it. Also, as a precaution most captchas give several chances if the text is too difficult to read. Some even include an auditory pronunciation feature.

For example if want to open a new Gmail account, then you have to pass the captcha test.

Cyber Woozling

Gathering private data when a person visits a website without the user’s permission is called Cyber Woozling.

This is carried out through web browser cookies, user installed plug-ins and extra code sent to the person’s computer.

Stolen information can include email addresses, what websites you visited and logs of time spent in surfing various websites.

Ego Surfing

When searches the internet by putting ones own name in the search engine it is called ego surfing.

In fact ego surfing is a good way to learn your online foot prints and then decide if you need to change your information sharing patterns.

Ego surfing is a first step towards managing one’s online identity so as to be able to make a positive online impression. It is crucial for job interviews, college admissions and other new personal and professional beginnings.

Cyber Monday

Cyber Monday is the first Monday after Thanks giving day that signifies the online shopping spree for holiday season till Christmas. "Cyber Monday" is an eventful day for online sellers. It is a marketing term that is based on the fact that consumers will return to work after thanksgiving weekend and go on to buy online that they were not able to do in real stores in the preceding week.

Last week John Lewis, a leading British retail, informed of a record online sales for the week taking £37.9m, and its third-strongest week at its stores with sales of £124.2m. Internet sales are now more important than ever for retailers after high street takings dropped in November.

Augmented reality

With the arrival of smart phone the word AR or ‘Augmented Reality’ has gained ground. It basically is about super imposing computer-generated content onto the real world, with the help of camera on a smart phone.

For example, if it is difficult to spend much time in the shops trying out outfits, you can simply click the outfits and super impose on your photos. It will give an idea of how it will look on you. Also, AR apps are used to reveal point of interest like ATM, Restaurant, theatres in form of images etc while travelling on highway with GPS.

Crypto Rage

The word Crypto Rage is analogous with the word Road Rage in Real world. Sometimes while driving on road people vent out their frustration and anger on other drivers at slightest provocations like honking or delayed crossing at signals. Similarly Crypto rage in virtual world involves a disgruntled employee breaking into their employer’s computer systems with the intent of pushing malicious codes / computer break down and other malafide actions.

A famous and oft quoted example of Crypto Rage involves the case of a computer programmer at a Texas, insurance firm who planted a malicious code in his company’s network that wiped out 168,000 payroll records two days after he was made to resign. He was finally convicted.

Flame War

A flame war is an intense online argument between two persons with personal insults & distasteful war of words hurled at each other in the course of debating a topic. Most online forums/message boards/guestbooks or interactive websites have policies against Flame War because it takes the focus away from the subjects which they wish to promote or raise awareness about.

Leveraging the saleability of Flame War some websites actually promote it for fun. Many a times the anger in flame Wars are credible and also evoke laughter. Teenagers and young crowds enjoy it as a game of catharsis.

An interesting Flame War conversation on a forum “Role of Technology in Intelligence”

A: Stop commenting on surveillance and hacking James Bond 000.
B: Hail MI5 director!! Oh .... did I disturb you ? Are u too busy hacking into satellite communication of Saddam Hussein to destroy his oil wells

A: You moron Saddam Hussein died long back. This is 2012. Oops ! did you just come out of your coma......
B: No but yours could just begin. Your brain cells will no longer be able to bear the burden of your stupidity....

Zombie

Zombie means an abandoned website that remains online and is used for spam output. The definition of "zombie" has been extended to include a PC that has received either a virus or a Trojan program which causes it to be used as a spam generator without the user's knowledge.

Zombies are considered a security breach. It is necessary to use anti-virus software on your machine and run it on a regular basis.

For example, in June of 2007 a 27-year-old man, Robert Alan Soloway, described as one of the world's most prolific spammers was arrested and federal authorities said computer users across the Web could notice a decrease in the amount of junk e-mail.

Phishing

Phishing is an online scam that uses e-mail to "fish" for users' private information by imitating legitimate companies. Scamsters copy legitimate websites and set up nearly identical pages.

People are lured into sharing user names, passwords, account information, or credit card numbers. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies.

A recent and popular case of phishing is the suspected Chinese phishing campaign targeting Gmail accounts of highly ranked officials of the United States and South Korean’s Government, military, and Chinese political activists.

Mouse Trapping

Mouse Trapping is a commonly used technique by pornography sites where a user gets "locked" in a website. While surfing the Internet it is possible to click a website and have multiple undesirable websites open. When this happens, you often cannot close or back out of the sites and must close your Web browser completely.

One way to close this vicious cycle is to use keyboard shortcuts (like Alt+F4 in Windows) instead of the mouse to close the windows. Multiple windows can be closed quickly with this method, although it may not always work if there is a resident program which is opening them.

Typically, mouse trappers register URLs with misspelled names of movie stars and pop singers, for example, BrittnaySpears.com or companies, BettyCroker.com andWallStreetJournel.com.

Online Jargon

Online jargon is the specialized and funky language used in online chats, mobile texts and technical lingo by most people today while communicating in the online world.

The word "jargon" refers to terminology that is associated with a specific profession, group, or activity and most often covers the language used by people who have a common interest. Like slang, it can develop as a kind of shorthand, to express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group, though it can also be developed deliberately using chosen terms.

Here's an example: "My smmr hols wr CWOT. B4, we used 2go2 NY 2C my bro, his GF & thr 3 :-@ kids FTF. ILNY, it's a gr8 plc." It is translated like this: "My summer holidays were a complete waste of time. Before, we used to go to New York to see my brother, his girlfriend, and their three screaming kids face to face. I love New York. It's a great place."

Online Jargon are also known as cyberslang, electronic language, e-mail style, geek-speak, hi-tech lingo, hybrid shorthand, interactive written discourse, netspeak, slang, slanguage, or textese.

Dorito Syndrome

It is a void feeling experienced by a person after the over use of Internet. The name “Dorito” arrives from a sense of emptiness and dissatisfaction resulting from consumption of savoury snack- junk food- e.g., Doritos and other, often salt-laden, snacks. For excessive Internet users, feelings such as being mentally bloat, emptiness, dissatisfaction after spending a long time performing a task without tangible benefit.

For example: "I just spent six hours surfing the Web, and now I've got a bad case of Dorito Syndrome."

Cornea Gumbo

A Web page, ad, or other graphic piece that is an overdesigned, jumbled with too much use of colours, fonts, and images.

This kind of a web page is a stress to eyes and mind because it is overloaded with visual stimulation, including icons, images, links and navigation bars. There are countless Web pages that fit this description; often more the rule than the exception. It is difficult for users to find relevant information and navigate to the correct page.

There can be many examples to such pages than just to referring to one. Amateur graphic designers using Photoshop tend to create such Cornea gumbo pages.

Cookie

Websites use these files to store information on your browser, such as log-in or registration identification, user preferences, and online "shopping-cart" information. Your browser saves the information and reuses it when you return to those websites.

A cookie is also known as an HTTP cookie, a web cookie, or a browser cookie. Cookies can include clicking particular buttons, logging in, or a record of which pages were visited by the user. Cookies have some important implications on the privacy and anonymity of Web users If not implemented correctly; a cookie's data can be intercepted by a hacker to gain unapproved access to the user's data and possibly to the originating website.

For example, a web server may send a cookie containing the username last used to log in to a website so that it may be filled in for future visits.

Grooming

Grooming is the process predators use to manipulate minors into sexual relationships or into producing sexual images of themselves. It often includes the giving of compliments or gifts.

Child Grooming on Internet occurs basically by gaining child’s trust and to lower the child's inhibitions in preparation for sexual activity with the child, or exploitation. In the case of sexual grooming, child pornography images are often shown to the child as part of the grooming process. Child grooming may be used to lure minors into illicit businesses such as child prostitution or the production of child pornography.

In 2003, MSN implemented restrictions in their chat rooms purportedly intended to help protect children from adults seeking sexual conversations with them. In 2005, Yahoo! chat rooms were investigated by the New York State attorney General’s office for allowing users to create rooms whose names suggested that they were being used for this purpose. That October, Yahoo! agreed to "implement policies and procedures designed to ensure" that such rooms would not be allowed.

Mouse Potato

A mouse potato is the computer equivalent of television's couch potato -someone who tends to spend a great amount of time in front of the computer.

Both the activities tend to be accompanied by snacking. A recent survey says that 85% of web users snack at the computer. It has been observed that this habitual nibbling and relative inactivity can lead to development of a characteristic potato-like body form.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing refers to applications and services offered over the Internet.

These services are offered from all data centres all over the world, which are collectively referred to as “Cloud.”Cloud computing is the use of computing resources across the world that are delivered as a service over the Internet. The name comes from the use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data, software and computation.

Amazon EC2, Google App engine, Google Apps, Apple MobileMe are some examples of Cloud computing.

Trolling

Trolling is to make insulting, inappropriate, mean and anonymous comments online.

Its sole idea is to provoke inflammatory discussions online. The word "troll" on the Internet stands for an inflammatory, sarcastic comment on a controversial issue to spark annoying and unwanted debates. Trolling is an Internet slang term used to describe any Internet user behaviour that is meant to intentionally anger or frustrate someone else. Troll Face is a black and white drawing of a face with a large mischievous grin that is meant to portray the expression someone makes while trolling. Trolls will abuse others in news blogs, political discussion forums, hobbyist communities online, Facebook pages, search engine conversations, and in online game chat. Also, trolls have become very common in news sites.

For example: A troll named Nimrod Severn trolls facebook and spreads hateful messages on pages

Cyber Stalking

Cyber Stalking is the use of Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization.

Cyber stalking is a new form of cyber crime. When a person is followed online, their privacy is invaded. It is a form of psychological harassment to the victim. It usually occurs with women, who are stalked by men, or children who are stalked by adult predators or pedophiles. Cyber stalkers need not have to leave their home to find, or harass their targets, and has no fear of physical violence since they believe that they cannot be physically touched in cyberspace. Typically, the cyber stalker's victim is new on the web, and inexperienced with the rules of netiquette and internet safety.

It is believed that over 75% of the victims are females, but sometimes men are also stalked.

Sexting

Sexting is the act of sending sexually explicit messages or photographs, primarily between mobile phones.

It is any kind of electronic communication between two people (mostly between boys and girls) at any given flirtatious moment via email, text, or chat.

Studies in US reveal that about 30% of US teenagers are presently engaged in the practice of sending their nude pictures via email or text. Boys were more likely to ask and girls more likely to have been asked for a sext. In addition, sexting is a new way in which adolescents are exposed to sexual material. According to experts, it causes more harm to young minds.

 
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